Norman Hams and kb5doh

Oklahoma Amateur Radio

Old Web-Site Page Two - 10 Meters

10 meter band 2
ID!
Transmit your call sign CLEARLY!
FCC Rules and Regulations Part 97
Sec. 97.119  Station identification.

    (a) Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand
station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting
channel at the end of each communication, and at least every 10 minutes
during a communication, for the purpose of clearly making the source of
the transmissions from the station known to those receiving the
transmissions. No station may transmit unidentified communications or
signals, or transmit as the station call sign, any call sign not
authorized to the station. (SOURCE PART 97)

DON'T GIVE YOUR CALL SIGN AND THEN SAY, "FOR ID"!!!!
YOUR CALL SIGN IS YOUR ID!
OTHER HAMS KNOW THIS AND YOU DO NOT NEED TO DEFINE WHAT YOUR CALL SIGN WAS FOR!

1. LISTEN, LISTEN, LISTEN!
Hey...wait a minute...I thought ham radio was about "talking"!
It is....but you will be surprised at how much you can learn about operating and ham radio by just listening around the ham bands! You always listen first to make certain the frequency is not busy before you transmit.
If you're bored with that video game, the Internet or whatever,
get on any active ham band and tune around until you hear an interesting conversation. Listen to the conversation and try to pick out ham terms, topics or phrases you don't know the meaning of......then, if your privileges, (and your station equipment), allow you to transmit on that band and frequency....wait for a pause between their transmissions and throw in your callsign.....most operators will acknowledge you and welcome you into the conversation....ask them to help you understand what they were talking about or point you in the right direction to learn more. Don't be bashful, tell them you are new to HF and would certainly appreciate their help!
Most will welcome you!

2. Be Patient
Making a contact to get any station to call you on HF usually requires that you use the term "CQ" repeated at least 3 times in a row along with your call sign on the end and waiting for a reply...if none...repeat it over again....then try the third time and hope for an answer to your call.
If still none, don't get discouraged!

If you have called CQ a multitude of times and still get no answer, try to figure out why....is it our old friend/enemy propagation, your equipment, your antenna type or setup? Do you have power out to the antenna? How do you know? Do you show output on the power meter. How is the SWR?

Check your complete station setup including all controls, functions, cables, etc....is your antenna still up! Contact a local ham on the phone or via email and set up a time and frequency to check out your station on the air.
If your trying to make a contact, any contact, on 10 meters or any other hf band for that matter and can't, then chances are that propagation is against you.

3. Using phonetics on HF
One of the major causes for voice communication errors is the misunderstanding of the spoken word on HF especially when operating under noisy conditions. Using the SSB mode under the assumption that it is a high fidelity mode like FM will surely disappoint you.There are many "accents" to the human voice and being in the sideband mode causes some words at times to be very unclear if the sending station is having technical problems with his microphone or audio circuits in his transceiver or you are operating under high noise levels.

If the other station's audio is extremely distorted, tell him so. He may have his mic gain cranked wide open, compressor full blast or a combination of both causing the background noise in his shack to be as loud as his voice!
Or his mic may be causing the problem and he may not know it.
Again, let him know that you think he has a problem with his audio.

Ask him to talk "across" his mic with it held close to his mouth rather than directly into it. You will be surprised at how much clearer his voice may sound, and yours, to others using this technique.

Most stock microphones that come with transceivers are designed for "close talking" and not held a foot away! Always try to use the "close talking" and "across" when using voice modes.
Definition: Phonetics - The study of speech sounds.

The Phonetic Alphabet is used to spell out letters in place of just saying the letter itself. By using a word for each letter there is less chance that the person listening will confuse letters. For instance, some letters that can easily be confused are "D" and "B". Using the phonetic alphabet, "Delta" and "Bravo" can be easily understood. The phonetic alphabet is used primarily in two-way radio communications. The effects of noise, weak signals, distorted audio, and radio operator accent are reduced through use of the phonetic alphabet. This system of pronouncing letters is used around the world by maritime units, aircraft, amateur radio operators and the military. This alphabet is recognized by the International Civil Aviation Organization, Federal Aviation Administration, International Telecommunication Union and NATO as the standard for aircraft communications and radio communications.

Many words with certain letters in them or the beginning of them sound much alike when spoken in the presence of noise, and there is plenty of it on HF.
Some examples:
thunder - sounds like under, lightning - sounds like heightening, many -  sounds like any, rig - sounds like re, Yaesu - may sound like hayzou, seven like heaven or eleven, eight like hate or ate and on and on.
Using phonetics can help tremendously in the understanding of the more difficult sounding words, numbers, etc.
It would be hard not to understand my call sign, kb5doh, using phonetics like.....
Kilo Bravo 5 Delta Oscar Hotel !

Here is the Phonetic alphabet and numbers as used in Ham Radio


Letter Pronunciation Letter Pronunciation Number Pronunciation
A Alpha (AL fah) N November (no VEM ber) 0 ZEE row
B Bravo (BRAH VOH) O Oscar (OSS cah) 1 WUN
C Charlie (CHAR lee) P Papa (pah PAH) 2 TOO
D Delta (DELL tah) Q Quebec (keh BECK) 3 TREE
E Echo (ECK oh) R Romeo (ROW me oh) 4 FOW er
F Foxtrot (FOKS trot) S Sierra (see AIR rah) 5 FIFE
G Golf (GOLF) T Tango (TANG go) 6 SIX
H Hotel (hoh TELL) U Uniform (YOU nee form) 7 SEVEN
I India (IN dee ah) V Victor (VIK tah) 8 AIT
J Juliet (JEW lee ETT) W Whiskey (WISS key) 9 NINE er
K Kilo (KEY loh) X X Ray (ECKS RAY)  
L Lima (LEE mah) Y Yankee (YANG key)  
M Mike (MIKE) Z Zulu (ZOO loo)  


Note: The syllables printed in capital letters are to be stressed as in the letter "A" , Alpha (AL fah)

Call signs are routinely spelled using phonetics so there is no misunderstanding.
For instance, the call sign X9XX would be pronounced,
ECKS RAY    NINE er    EXKS RAY    EXKS RAY

Memorize the table above....you will use it often.
If you have difficulty memorizing, then just use a very similar phonetic in it's place....
but please try to memorize the standard phonetics above!
They are used by most hams worldwide. Please refrain from making up your own,
this gets very confusing with thousands of different phonetics on the air.

The RST Reporting System
While roaming around the upper part of the 40 meter Ham Band in the LSB MODE, I recently overheard a conversation between a roundtable group. I listened for a few moments and then heard one of the Hams who was most likely new to Ham Radio, ask one of the others in the group to give him a signal report.

The report he got back from the other station was, "You're 59".  Silence was heard for a few moments and then the "new" ham said, "I did not want you to guess my age....how do you hear me?
The reply was again, "You're 59".  "What do you mean?" The new Ham said.
Then another station in the roundtable began a very lengthy dissertation to try to explain the RST reporting method to him that no one could have understood! He started talking about power levels, dB's, S meters, propagation, antenna theory, brand names, receiver sensitivity and on and on for a good five minutes! When the new ham started to ask questions, another station spoke up and totally confused the situation even more! Then another station started with his 'two cents" worth. After a couple more questions with no clear answers......The new ham finally said "I still don't understand how well you are hearing me.....I hear the phone ringing....got to go!", and he signed off. He sounded very disgusted to me when he left the air abruptly!

In my opinion, in answering his question...."How do you hear me?"....it would have been much better in this case to just say "loud and clear" since the new ham had obviously not studied the RST system of signal reporting and none of the roundtable station operators could explain RST to him in simple terms....they just seemed to want to dazzle him with as much "info" as possible! It seemed to me that they were trying to help in their own way, but did not want to admit their lack of a "good" explaination. They could have suggested that he study the RST reporting system on the internet or wherever he could find the information.

To help the "New" hams and lots of you old timers who know nothing about giving or receiving signal reports using the RST method...read on!

THE RST REPORTING SYSTEM IN A NUTSHELL!


RST Reports: An RST report is a report from a receiving station on the quality and strength of the transmitted signal. Using shorthand in the form of numbers to represent the tone of a CW signal or voice transmission of a transmitting station's signal at the receiving station's location (QTH).
Here is what it means:
R  Readability - Understanding what is said and how well. On a scale of 1 to 5, the readability of your signal with a "5" being perfect with no difficulty. In other words the ability of the other operator to understand what you are saying. A "1" is unreadable....a "5" is perfectly readable.

S  Strength - On a scale of 1 to 9, indicates how strong your stations signal is. A "1" is a very faint signal.  A "9" is an extremely strong signal.

T  Tone - Used for morse code signal reports. Indicates on a scale of 1 to 9 the quality of the tone of the morse code "dits and dahs".  From a "60 cycle harsh tone" a (1).... To a "very pure tone", a (9).

Example #1 A CW REPORT: If you got a report of "599" on CW, it  means the following:
The five means your signal is very easy to understand with absolutely no difficulty. The first nine means your signal registers a very strong reading on your S meter, usually 3/4 scale or more.  The second nine means your CW tone has a nice pure clear tone or sound.
Example #2 A VOICE REPORT: If you get a 5 5 (sometimes said 5 by 5)....Your signal is perfectly readable with a fairly good signal strength.

In some cases people may tell you: your signal is five nine plus twenty dB... In this case the twenty db part indicates that your signal is so strong that it goes off the standard 1 through 9 signal strength S meter dial by twenty decibels as indicated on the meter readout. (See note below)This would mean that you are putting out a REALLY strong signal!

NOTE:
The RST System of Signal Reporting was established roughly in 1934 as a quick method of reporting Readability, Signal Strength and the Tone of  CW. For voice contacts only the "R" and "S" are used. The "S" component is usually not the same as your S-Meter reading as most S-Meters aren't calibrated to track the RST System. The RST is also reported on QSL Cards and must be filled in correctly. For example a "569" report for a voice contact is NOT valid. Note that many DX operations and contest stations merely report "599" as a convenience to avoid having to log each of the real reports. This is a questionable practice but is used most of the time in DX'ing/Contesting.
Would you give a 599 for a station you could barely hear? Would you appreciate it if this was your report from someone that could barely hear you? Be honest with your reports!

The RST report system works well, can be used for troubleshooting problems with your station and has been used by Hams worldwide for many years and also is used by the military with slight modifications in their reporting of transmissions.

There is a great deal of "averaging all factors" when giving a signal report to another station.
There is a lot of difference between a voice report of 59 and one of 52.....but the most important thing to me would be readability! I have heard hundreds of stations perfectly clear on voice and CW that were not moving the S Meter! (Yes...it does work!) So their report might have been an R5, S1 or 2........to my ears!.....

Study this information below to help you with giving out accurate reports.
Feel free to copy any or all of this information if it would be helpful to you!
R = READABILITY
1 -- Unreadable
2 -- Barely readable, occasional words distinguishable
3 -- Readable with considerable difficulty
4 -- Readable with practically no difficulty
5 -- Perfectly readable

S = SIGNAL STRENGTH
1 -- Faint signals, barely perceptible
2 -- Very weak signals
3 -- Weak signals
4 -- Fair signals
5 -- Fairly good signals
6 -- Good signals
7 -- Moderately strong signals
8 -- Strong signals
9 -- Extremely strong signals

T = TONE
1 -- Sixty cycle a.c. or less, very rough and broad
2 -- Very rough a.c. , very harsh and broad
3 -- Rough a.c. tone, rectified but not filtered
4 -- Rough note, some trace of filtering
5 -- Filtered rectified a.c. but strongly ripple-modulated
6 -- Filtered tone, definite trace of ripple modulation
7 -- Near pure tone, trace of ripple modulation
8 -- Near perfect tone, slight trace of modulation
9 -- Perfect tone, no trace of ripple or modulation of any kind.

Prosigns, Q Signals and CW Abbreviations
Procedural Signals (Prosigns) for Morse Code

C Q - Calling any station (does any ham *not* know this one?)

AR - "+" over, end of message

K - go, invite any station to transmit

KN - "(" go only, invite a specific station to transmit

BK - invite receiving station to transmit

R - all received OK

AS - please stand by

SK - end of contact (sent before call)

CL - going off the air (clear)


Q Signals (or Q Abbreviations)

Q Signals take the form of a question only when each is followed by a question mark.

QRG - Will you tell me my exact frequency (or that of ___)?
Your exact frequency (or that of ___) is ___ kHz.

QRH - Does my frequency vary?
Your frequency varies.

QRI - How is the tone of my transmission?
The tone of your transmission is ___. (1. Good 2. Variable 3. Bad)

QRJ - Are you receiving me badly?
I can not receive you. Your signals are too weak.

QRK - What is the intelligibility of my signals (or those of ___)?
The intelligibility of your signals (or those of ___) is:
(1. Bad 2. Poor 3. Fair 4. Good 5. Excellent)

QRL - Are you busy?
I am busy (or I am busy with ___). Please do not interfere.

QRM - Is my transmission being interferred with?
Your transmission is being interferred with ___.
(1. Nil 2. Slightly 3. Moderately 4. Severely 5. Extremely)

QRN - Are you troubled by static?
I am troubled by static ---. (1-5 as under QRM)

QRO - Shall I increase power?
Increase power.

QRP - Shall I decrease power?
Decrease power.

QRQ - Shall I send faster?
Send faster ___. (WPM)

QRS - Shall I send more slowly?
Send more slowly ___. (WPM)

QRT - Shall I stop sending?
Stop sending.

QRU - Have you anything for me?
I have nothing for you.

QRV - Are you ready?
I am ready.

QRW - Shall I inform ___ that you are calling on ___ kHz?
Please inform ___ that I am calling on ___ kHz.

QRX - When will you call me again?
I will call you again at ___ hours (on ___ kHz).

QRY - What is my turn?
Your turn is numbered ___.

QRZ - Who is calling me?
You are being called by ___ (on ___ kHz).

QSA - What is the strength of my signals (or those of ___)?
The strength of you signals (or those of ___) is ___.
(1. Scarcely perceptable 2. Weak 3. Fairly good 4. Good 5. Very good)

QSB - Are my signals fading?
Your signals are fading.

QSD - Is my keying defective?
Your keying is defective?

QSG - Shall I send ___ messages at a time?
Send ___ messages at a time.

QSK - Can you hear me in between your signals and if so, can I break in on your transmission?
I can hear you between my signals; break in on my transmission.

QSL - Can you acknowledge receipt?
I am acknowledging receipt.

QSM - Shall I repeat the last message I sent you, or some previous message?
Repeat the last message you sent me [or message(s) number(s) ___].

QSN - Did you hear me (or ___) on ___ kHz?
I did hear you (or ___) on ___ kHz.

QSO - Can you communicate with ___ direct or by relay?
I can communicate with ___ direct (or by relay through ___).

QSP - Will you relay to ___?
I will relay to ___.

QST - General call proceding a message addressed to all amateurs and ARRL members. This is in effect, "CQ ARRL".

QSU - Shall I send or reply on this frequency (or on ___ kHz)?
Send a series of Vs on this frequency (or on ___ kHz).

QSW - Will you send on this frequency (or on ___ kHz)?
I am going to send on this frequency (or on ___ kHz).

QSX - Will you listen to ___ on ___ kHz?
I am listening to ___ on ___ kHz.

QSY - Shall I change to to transmission on another frequency?
Change transmission to another frequency (or ___ kHz).

QSZ - Shall I send each word or group more than once?
Send each word or group twice (or ___ times).

QTA - Shall I cancel message number ___?
Cancel message number ___.

QTB - Do you agree with my counting of words?
I do not agree with your counting of words. I will repeat the first letter or digit of each word or group.

QTC - How many messages have you to send?
I have ___ messages for you (or for ___).

QTH - What is your location?
My location is ___.

QTR - What is the correct time?
The correct time is ___.

 

Common abbreviations for CW work
AA  - All after
 PBL  - Preamble
 
AB  - All before
 PSE  - Please
 
ABT  - About
 PWR  - Power
 
ADR  - Address
 PX  - Press
 
AGN  - Again
 R  - Received as transmitted; Are
 
AM  - Amplitude Modulation
 RCD  - Received
 
ANT  - Antenna
 RCVR  - Receiver
 
BCI  - Broadcast Interference
 RX  - Receiver
 
BCL  - Broadcast Listener
 REF  - Refer to; Referring to; Reference
 
BK  - Break, Break in
 RFI  - Radio frequency interference
 
BN  - All between; Been
 RIG  - Station equipment
 
BUG  - Semi-Automatic key
 RTTY  - Radio teletype
 
B4  - Before
 SASE  - Self-addressed, stamped envelope
 
C  - Yes
 SED  - Said
 
CFM  - Confirm; I confirm
 SIG  - Signature; Signal
 
CK  -Ckeck
 SINE  - Operator's personal initials or nickname
 
CL  - I am closing my station; Call
 SKED  - Schedule
 
CLD  - Called
 SRI  - Sorry
 
CLG  - Calling
 SSB  - Single Side Band
 
CQ  - Calling any station
 SVC  - Service; Prefix to service message
 
CW  - Continuous wave
 T  - Zero
 
DLD  - Delivered
 TFC  - Traffic
 
DLVD  - Delivered
 TMW  - Tomorrow
 
DR  - Dear
 TKS  - Thanks
 
DX  - Distance
 TNX  - Thanks
 
ES  - And
 TT  - That
 
FB  - Fine Business, excellent
 TU  - Thank you
 
FM  - Frequency Modulation
 TVI  - Television interference
 
GA  - Go ahead
 TX  - Transmitter
 
GM  - Good morning
 TXT  - Text
 
GN  - Good night
 UR  - Your; You're
 
GND  - Ground
 URS  - Yours
 
GUD  - Good
 VFO  - Variable Frequency Oscillator
 
HI  - The telegraph laugh; High
 VY  - Very
 
HR  - Here; Hear
 WA  - Word after
 
HV  - Have
 WB  - Word before
 
HW  - How
 WD  - Word
 
LID  - A poor operator
 WDS  - Words
 
MA  - Millamperes
 WKD  - Worked
 
MILS  - Millamperes
 WKG  - Working
 
MSG  - Message; Prefix to radiogram
 WL  - Well; Will
 
N  - No
 WUD  - Would
 
NCS  - Net Control Station
 WX - Weather
 
ND  - Nothing Doing
 XCVR  - Transceiver
 
NIL  - Nothing; I have nothing for you
 XMTR  - Transmitter
 
NM  - No more
 XTAL  - Crystal
 
NR  - Number
 XYL  - Wife
 
NW  - Now; I resume transmission
 YL  - Young lady
 
OB  - Old boy
 73  - Best Regards
 
OC  - Old chap
 88  - Love and kisses
 
OM  - Old man
 
OP  - Operator
 
OPR  - Operator
 
OT  - Old timer; Old top

 

'The Amateur's Creed'
"THE AMATEUR'S CODE (Creed)"
Common Sense Rules for All of Us Worldwide!
The "Amateur's Code" has worked for almost 100 years and works well when used by every ham!

The Radio Amateur is:

CONSIDERATE...never knowingly operates in such a way as to lessen the pleasure of others.

LOYAL...offers loyalty, encouragement and support to other amateurs, local clubs, and the American Radio Relay League, through which Amateur Radio in the United States is represented nationally and internationally.

PROGRESSIVE...with knowledge abreast of science, a well-built and efficient station and operation above reproach.

FRIENDLY...slow and patient operating when requested; friendly advice and counsel to the beginner; kindly assistance, cooperation and consideration for the interests of others. These are the hallmarks of the amateur spirit.

BALANCED...radio is an avocation, never interfering with duties owed to family, job, school or community.

PATRIOTIC...station and skill always ready for service to country and community.

The original Amateur's Code above was written by
Paul M. Segal, W9EEA, in 1928 and has had minor word changes since then,
but the meaning remains the same.

"DX Code of Conduct"

1. I will listen, and listen, and then listen some more.
Try to refrain from transmitting when you hear another station. Your voice may be among thousands heard at the same time by the DX station. Wait for a pause when you believe the frequency is clear and then try.

 


2. I will only call if I can copy the DX station properly.
Did you copy his call as, XE5JU or was is XE5KU? If you did not hear him clearly, then saying the wrong call sign may not get you the contact without taking up lots of time from others who did copy his call correctly! Listen!

 


3. I will not trust the cluster and will be sure of the DX station's call sign before calling.
Many DX clusters have wrong or outdated information.... depend only on what you hear from the DX station on the air!


4. I will not interfere with the DX station nor anyone calling him and will never tune up on the DX frequency or in the QSX slot.
This could be considered as intentional and malicious interference. If you must tuneup on the air, find a quite frequency nearby....remember, listen, listen, listen before you transmit! Make sure you ID!
QSX: Commonly used on the DX Packet Clusters to indicate where the DX station was listening or contacted during a split operation.

 

5. I will wait for the DX station to end a contact before I call him.
Again, listen, listen and wait for him to receive more calls. He will let everyone know he is "ready" for contacts. Most DX stations simply say....."QRZ" when they are ready.


6. I will always send my full call sign.
Does this need an explanation? The DX operator may call for stations by their prefix or suffix, but make sure you identify legally with your full call when it comes time.


7. I will call and then listen for a reasonable interval. I will not call continuously.
The DX operator may be very busy recording log entries and attempting to pull out single calls from hundreds of stations calling  him, so give him plenty of time to respond to your call sent only once. Of course you can keep trying, but give others a chance also. Use good common sense!

 

8. I will not transmit when the DX operator calls another call sign, not mine.
You may be interfering with the transmissions which is illegal! Don't take that chance! Don't intentionally "double" with any station.


9. I will not transmit when the DX operator queries a call sign not like mine.
He, the DX station, was unsure of the exact call he heard but only part of it. So if your call or part of it is not like what he is looking for, don't transmit!


10. I will not transmit when the DX station calls other geographic areas other than mine.
The DX station is looking only for other countries, not yours. Don't add to the confusion by transmitting! If he wants your country contacts he will say so!

11. When the DX operator calls me, I will not repeat my call sign unless I think he has copied it incorrectly.
This is a time saving measure for both him, you and the other stations that want to contact him.

12. I will be thankful if and when I do make a contact.
You should be not only thankful, but proud of your DX techniques and your station performance when making contacts outside your countries boundries!


13. I will respect my fellow hams and conduct myself so as to earn their respect.
Follow all of the above in the DX Code of Conduct, use good common courtesy and you will have made the experience much better for all concerned.

GOOD OPERATING PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES FOR THE HAM BANDS.

I am not the best in the world. I make mistakes on HF that most new hams would not make.

Even on VHF, I sometimes "get in a big way of talking" and forget to ID on time.
But, below are some of the things that might help everyone out somewhere down the line, QSL ?
( just had to throw that in there to show how stupid it looked ).

I really believe that the reason a lot of the new hams don't operate as much as they could is that they simply cannot figure out what the heck is being said!! It makes them afraid to talk.

The other thing is that some operators on repeaters have their own little "group" and that little group is the only one they will respond to or talk to. I hear so many new callsigns being correctly " thrown out' on repeater frequencies and no one goes back. I try to jump in and talk to them if no one goes back to them by the second try.
It makes them feel left out, looked down upon , and more like giving up on the HOBBY than anything else when they hear people talk for 30 minutes and then when they get the courage to key up, no one comes back!
What happened to being courteous!
I truly believe that is the reason there is not that much traffic on repeaters now. Why should 2,000 operators in East Tennessee keep trying over and over for days to get someone to talk to them or sit there and listen to a bunch of garbage that they have never heard of?
Remember guys and gals.....you're the "Elmers" and teachers of the newer hams!

Get on there and tell the new ham,
" Good to hear you, just get on here and if you talk on it like a telephone in plain english and ID every 10 minutes with the repeater ID timer, and sign off by saying your ID , you will learn a lot from the people on here and will be made to feel welcome".
The last paragraph above in bold text sums up how to talk on a repeater in one sentence.
This is what I was told on the 147.255 when I tried to pick up some of the bad habits and lingo that some of the idiots were using at the time. It only takes one time to tell a new ham the one paragraph above that will make them sound and feel much better on any and all repeaters.
See "A New Ham's Guide To Repeaters" for a basic understanding of how repeaters work on another page.

Procedures on radio:
It is stressed that emergency traffic always has priority. If it aint there, dont ask for it on a net or any other time!
On so many nets on so many repeaters, AND EVEN ON HF, when they start up the net; they usually say "is there any emergency traffic?".....  sort of like asking,
"Is there anybody out there that has quit breathing, or someone next to you having a heart attack, or someone in front of you in traffic that has had a wreck and is entrapped in the vehicle?
IF SOMEONE HAD EMERGENCY TRAFFIC , THEY SHOULD NOT SIT AND HOLD IT FOR A NET TO START SOMEWHERE !!! EMERGENCY TRAFFIC SHOULD BE PASSED IMMEDIATELY......
it's an EMERGENCY!!!!!!

SIMPLY STATE IN YOUR PREAMBLES THAT ANYONE THAT HAS EMERGENCY TRAFFIC SHOULD USE PROPER PROCEDURE AND BREAK INTO THE NET AT ANY TIME... .. dont ask for EMERGENCY TRAFFIC!

Seventy threes, seventy thirds, eighty eights....
BELIEVE IT OR NOT , THESE TERMS DO NOT EXIST on voice !

A little history here; CW operators in the early , early days of radio came up with the number code of 7 3 for "best regards" because of the fame of the 73 Winchester rifle. The 73 winchester was the best rifle of the time and the CW guys just took it as "seven three " SEPERATE NUMBERS WHICH IS A 7 and a 3 in CW
--...     ...-- Anyone experienced in CW who listens on FM repeaters are likely to tell the operators on there saying seventy three's; that they may as well be using French to sign with, which leads me to the next one that really gripes repeater owners and control operators who have experience on HF.....

Q- signals.....
THEY HAVE NO PLACE ON FM PHONE ON A REPEATER, AND AS FAR AS THAT GOES , THEY HAVE NO PLACE ON FM AT ALL!!
Again, they are created for and from CW and ssb traffic nets ; Q signals were developed for ease of operation on CW and ssb traffic nets.
If you ever do CW , you will find that sending QTH for " my location " is much shorter.

  Speaking in voice, especially on FM using Q signals, would make me ask," WHY DO YOU HAVE TO USE "Q" SIGNALS ??? Because it sounds "cool" ?
Why would you say, " What is your QTH, you have a lot of QRN, QUA Jim lately? QSL?"All the tech licensees are sitting there saying " what the heck is he talking about?"
Or why would you say " Hi , Hi " on voice ( CW .... .. .... .. = H I H I for humor intended) ???
Oh , by the way, coded transmissions ARE NOT ALLOWED ON VOICE per Part 97... hmmm!

Here is "q t h " in CW compared to "my location";
--.- - .... compared to -- -.-- .-.. --- -.-. .- - .. --- -.
here is 7 3 compared to best regards;
--... ...-- compared to - ... . ... - .-. . --. .- .-. -.. ...

That should explain it! Even if you dont know CW, you can see the difference in how many dots and dashes are used in each term !
Many control operators dont say anything at all about users because there are not that many users anymore and they are afraid they will ' run somone off ' .
Did they ever think that maybe that is the reason there are not that many people on repeaters, due to listening to all the LID's using CW lingo on voice ?
It is better to have a few "good operators' than 70 bad ones like on some repeaters in the larger cities.
There are courteous ways to mention these things to newer operators "on the air". Here is one of them, " Hey, you dont have to say all that Q stuff because you are on FM phone, just use it just like you're on a telephone, (remember kids are listening)..... PLAIN ENGLISH! All you are required to do is be courteous and say your callsign every ten minutes as the repeater ID's, and use it when you sign off.... and dont say seventy threes or seventy thirds...... simply say your call and bye, see ya later, etc...." Again PLAIN ENGLISH!
Another one heard on most repeaters " Man, what did you do, you are loud on me , looks like you are putting a 9 ' on me!"
NO.... Both stations through the repeater are hearing the repeater, not each other directly. THERE IS NO WAY TO TELL A STATION WHAT THEY ARE "PUTTING ON A REPEATER" as far as signal strength.
They may be able to tell the other station that "white noise", ( static), is heard on their signal or that they are "picket fencing", ( clipping in and out) , but without being at the repeater receiver with an S-meter hooked to the repeater receiver you cannot tell what signal strength the repeater is receiving.

Listening.... Monitoring.... or calling " CQ"  CQ -.-.  --.-
Again, when using CW, "CQ" is a lot shorter than "calling any station".
ON FM, SIMPLY KEY UP AND SAY YOUR CALLSIGN OR ASK IS ANYONE ON THIS REPEATER. Make sure you don't "double", (talk at the same time), in any circumstances or band!!

HF SSB:
SSB = sideband, LSB/USB
LSB = lower sideband  (used on 40m through 160m.)
USB= upper sideband  (used on 20m,17m, 15m, 12m, 10m and also on 6m, 2m, and 440 band.)
When making a call, be sure to listen for a few minutes, which is a good rule to use on any frequency or band! Just because you cannot hear anyone for a minute on HF does not mean that someone else is not listening to a reply from a distant station that they can hear and you cannot. This happens all the time.
Someone will tell a friend to move to " so and so frequency" and they go there and just start talking.... well, Ol' Jim in kentucky may be sitting there listening to Ol' John in California giving a parts list out for an amplifier and Ol' Jim may be using a directional antenna pointed west while your antenna is going north and south. You can't hear John and and Jim is listening to John. If you say your call, Jim should politely tell you "standby'. Chances are he will either remember your call or jot it down so he can return your call when he gets the chance.

Never use a amplifier on a local net or chat this will cause discontent with other hams close to you, try to use 90-watts or less never go over 200-watts (exception old tube radio) as most of the old tube radios are normaly tuned and are 200-watts no-matter what.

On FM repeaters though, listen,................ then just "drop in your callsign" ...... Chances are no one will come back , but dont give up. Maybe all the "QSL'ers" will someday learn to send CW and learn they had been using the wrong operating procedures and come back and talk to you like a normal person on the repeater.

GOOD OPERATING PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES FOR THE HAM BANDS.

I am not the best in the world. I make mistakes on HF that most new hams would not make.

Even on VHF, I sometimes "get in a big way of talking" and forget to ID on time.
But, below are some of the things that might help everyone out somewhere down the line, QSL ?
( just had to throw that in there to show how stupid it looked ).

I really believe that the reason a lot of the new hams don't operate as much as they could is that they simply cannot figure out what the heck is being said!! It makes them afraid to talk.

The other thing is that some operators on repeaters have their own little "group" and that little group is the only one they will respond to or talk to. I hear so many new callsigns being correctly " thrown out' on repeater frequencies and no one goes back. I try to jump in and talk to them if no one goes back to them by the second try.
It makes them feel left out, looked down upon , and more like giving up on the HOBBY than anything else when they hear people talk for 30 minutes and then when they get the courage to key up, no one comes back!
What happened to being courteous!
I truly believe that is the reason there is not that much traffic on repeaters now. Why should 2,000 operators in East Tennessee keep trying over and over for days to get someone to talk to them or sit there and listen to a bunch of garbage that they have never heard of?
Remember guys and gals.....you're the "Elmers" and teachers of the newer hams!

Get on there and tell the new ham,
" Good to hear you, just get on here and if you talk on it like a telephone in plain english and ID every 10 minutes with the repeater ID timer, and sign off by saying your ID , you will learn a lot from the people on here and will be made to feel welcome".
The last paragraph above in bold text sums up how to talk on a repeater in one sentence.
This is what I was told on the 147.255 when I tried to pick up some of the bad habits and lingo that some of the idiots were using at the time. It only takes one time to tell a new ham the one paragraph above that will make them sound and feel much better on any and all repeaters.
See "A New Ham's Guide To Repeaters" for a basic understanding of how repeaters work on another page.

Procedures on radio:
It is stressed that emergency traffic always has priority. If it aint there, dont ask for it on a net or any other time!
On so many nets on so many repeaters, AND EVEN ON HF, when they start up the net; they usually say "is there any emergency traffic?".....  sort of like asking,
"Is there anybody out there that has quit breathing, or someone next to you having a heart attack, or someone in front of you in traffic that has had a wreck and is entrapped in the vehicle?
IF SOMEONE HAD EMERGENCY TRAFFIC , THEY SHOULD NOT SIT AND HOLD IT FOR A NET TO START SOMEWHERE !!! EMERGENCY TRAFFIC SHOULD BE PASSED IMMEDIATELY......
it's an EMERGENCY!!!!!!

SIMPLY STATE IN YOUR PREAMBLES THAT ANYONE THAT HAS EMERGENCY TRAFFIC SHOULD USE PROPER PROCEDURE AND BREAK INTO THE NET AT ANY TIME... .. dont ask for EMERGENCY TRAFFIC!

Seventy threes, seventy thirds, eighty eights....
BELIEVE IT OR NOT , THESE TERMS DO NOT EXIST on voice !

A little history here; CW operators in the early , early days of radio came up with the number code of 7 3 for "best regards" because of the fame of the 73 Winchester rifle. The 73 winchester was the best rifle of the time and the CW guys just took it as "seven three " SEPERATE NUMBERS WHICH IS A 7 and a 3 in CW
--...     ...-- Anyone experienced in CW who listens on FM repeaters are likely to tell the operators on there saying seventy three's; that they may as well be using French to sign with, which leads me to the next one that really gripes repeater owners and control operators who have experience on HF.....

Q- signals.....
THEY HAVE NO PLACE ON FM PHONE ON A REPEATER, AND AS FAR AS THAT GOES , THEY HAVE NO PLACE ON FM AT ALL!!
Again, they are created for and from CW and ssb traffic nets ; Q signals were developed for ease of operation on CW and ssb traffic nets.
If you ever do CW , you will find that sending QTH for " my location " is much shorter.

  Speaking in voice, especially on FM using Q signals, would make me ask," WHY DO YOU HAVE TO USE "Q" SIGNALS ??? Because it sounds "cool" ?
Why would you say, " What is your QTH, you have a lot of QRN, QUA Jim lately? QSL?"All the tech licensees are sitting there saying " what the heck is he talking about?"
Or why would you say " Hi , Hi " on voice ( CW .... .. .... .. = H I H I for humor intended) ???
Oh , by the way, coded transmissions ARE NOT ALLOWED ON VOICE per Part 97... hmmm!

Here is "q t h " in CW compared to "my location";
--.- - .... compared to -- -.-- .-.. --- -.-. .- - .. --- -.
here is 7 3 compared to best regards;
--... ...-- compared to - ... . ... - .-. . --. .- .-. -.. ...

That should explain it! Even if you dont know CW, you can see the difference in how many dots and dashes are used in each term !
Many control operators dont say anything at all about users because there are not that many users anymore and they are afraid they will ' run somone off ' .
Did they ever think that maybe that is the reason there are not that many people on repeaters, due to listening to all the LID's using CW lingo on voice ?
It is better to have a few "good operators' than 70 bad ones like on some repeaters in the larger cities.
There are courteous ways to mention these things to newer operators "on the air". Here is one of them, " Hey, you dont have to say all that Q stuff because you are on FM phone, just use it just like you're on a telephone, (remember kids are listening)..... PLAIN ENGLISH! All you are required to do is be courteous and say your callsign every ten minutes as the repeater ID's, and use it when you sign off.... and dont say seventy threes or seventy thirds...... simply say your call and bye, see ya later, etc...." Again PLAIN ENGLISH!
Another one heard on most repeaters " Man, what did you do, you are loud on me , looks like you are putting a 9 ' on me!"
NO.... Both stations through the repeater are hearing the repeater, not each other directly. THERE IS NO WAY TO TELL A STATION WHAT THEY ARE "PUTTING ON A REPEATER" as far as signal strength.
They may be able to tell the other station that "white noise", ( static), is heard on their signal or that they are "picket fencing", ( clipping in and out) , but without being at the repeater receiver with an S-meter hooked to the repeater receiver you cannot tell what signal strength the repeater is receiving.

Listening.... Monitoring.... or calling " CQ"  CQ -.-.  --.-
Again, when using CW, "CQ" is a lot shorter than "calling any station".
ON FM, SIMPLY KEY UP AND SAY YOUR CALLSIGN OR ASK IS ANYONE ON THIS REPEATER. Make sure you don't "double", (talk at the same time), in any circumstances or band!!

HF SSB:
SSB = sideband, LSB/USB
LSB = lower sideband  (used on 40m through 160m.)
USB= upper sideband  (used on 20m,17m, 15m, 12m, 10m and also on 6m, 2m, and 440 band.)
When making a call, be sure to listen for a few minutes, which is a good rule to use on any frequency or band! Just because you cannot hear anyone for a minute on HF does not mean that someone else is not listening to a reply from a distant station that they can hear and you cannot. This happens all the time.
Someone will tell a friend to move to " so and so frequency" and they go there and just start talking.... well, Ol' Jim in kentucky may be sitting there listening to Ol' John in California giving a parts list out for an amplifier and Ol' Jim may be using a directional antenna pointed west while your antenna is going north and south. You can't hear John and and Jim is listening to John. If you say your call, Jim should politely tell you "standby'. Chances are he will either remember your call or jot it down so he can return your call when he gets the chance.

On FM repeaters though, listen,................ then just "drop in your callsign" ...... Chances are no one will come back , but dont give up. Maybe all the "QSL'ers" will someday learn to send CW and learn they had been using the wrong operating procedures and come back and talk to you like a normal person on the repeater.


 

SSB Single Side Band
What is Single Side band?

Single sideband is not a band! It is not a frequency! It is not a portion of a band!
It is not a rock group! It is not.......what you may have thought!

Single sideband is more properly called a mode.
It is a very efficient method of superimposing your voice or other information on a radio wave and the transmission of that radio wave.

The method by which audio, (information), is impressed on a radio signal is called modulation. To modulate a radio wave is to add information to it that can be received on a receiver for some useful purpose.

There are two types of modulation that most people are familiar with, AM (amplitude modulation), and FM, (frequency modulation), for which the AM and FM broadcast bands were named. You have used FM modulation on the 2 meter ham band and most likely used AM modulation when you were a kid using toy walkie talkies. You may also have used single sideband on other occasions also, but since you are reading this, you want to know more.

When you are in the AM mode, your voice modulates, (is superimposed), on a carrier wave at a certain frequency in your transmitter and is transmitted over the air waves.

The carrier wave is used to "carry" the audio information to the AM receiver where it is detected and transformed back to an audio signal that we can hear representing the original information (voice) that was spoken into the microphone.

In an AM modulated radio signal, the carrier, is continuously transmitted. Due to the nature of the way AM is produced in the transmitter, two identical modulating signals are attached to the carrier wave, these are called the sidebands. They are a mirror image of each other, identical in every way.

Any audio that you hear on an AM receiver is from the two sidebands. When the radio transmitter you are tuned to is not transmitting any sound, you can still hear from the speaker and see on your S meter that a signal is present due to the background noise being quieter than either side of that frequency. This is the carrier you are detecting being detected by your receiver.

These two modulating (audio) sidebands are located on either side of the carrier wave, one just above it and the other just below. As a result, the sideband located just above the carrier frequency is called the upper sideband and that which is located just below the carrier frequency is called the lower sideband.

The audio sidebands that form an AM broadcast signal are quite important. They contain the "information or audio" intended for the receive station. Although AM signals were transmitted almost exclusively for decades, it was discovered with experimentation that the AM signal could be modified yielding much better results!

Many methods were experimented with and ham radio operators often used both sidebands without the carrier using special circuits in the transmitter to eliminate the carrier wave while still leaving the modulation to be transmitted.

This is known as double sideband (DSB) without the carrier. DSB was typically used in the earlier experiments because it was much easier to filter out just the carrier than to filter out the carrier and one of the sidebands. Soon the experimenters were able to filter out the carrier and either of the sidebands to yield what we now know and use as Single Sideband! So we are using a single side band....meaning one side band.

Using special circuits and filters, single sideband transmissions can consist of either the lower sideband (LSB) or the upper sideband (USB). If you listen to an SSB signal on an AM receiver, the voices are altered and sound very muffled, garbled and distorted. Some people even say "Donal Duck" sounding when tuned improperly in the sideband mode.

Enter the SSB receiver.

Since the receiver still needs the original carrier to “demodulate” or decode the signal, you must have a special SSB receiver to listen to these transmissions. This is accomplished in the SSB receiver by circuits that re-insert a very low level carrier wave back with the lower or upper sideband signal and magically, the audio that was transmitted is restored in the receiver with almost identical reproduction of the original voice. Tuning the SSB receiver is very touchy and critical to make the voices sound natural. If you are tuned off of the transmitter frequency, depending on which way you go, the voices will be higher or lower pitched, resulting in that "Donald Duck" sound. You will tune with ease with some practice.


Your receiver MUST be in the same "mode" as the transmitted signal or the whole process does not work!
It the transmitter of the other station is in the USB mode, your receiver MUST be in the USB mode and vice versa.

How do you know which "mode" to use?
On HF and by agreements worldwide, all stations transmitting SSB use LSB on 160 meters through 75 meters, USB on 60 meters, back to LSB on 40 meters and then all bands above 40 meters use USB. This agreement makes life easy when switching bands. Every one knows which modes are used on which bands.

Here is a sample audio file. At first you will hear a station in the USB mode on 20 meters properly tuned........then the receiver is switched to the AM mode with a station transmitting in the SSB mode......then back to SSB with tuning slightly off frequency and retuning to the correct frequency by "ear". You will notice how the voice pitch changes as the tuning of the receiver gets closer to the transmit frequency of the person transmitting.....Click here for the audio. Mp3, 149KB, 1:16 seconds. (I did not get a chance to "ID" the stations heard.)

Since the fidelity of the SSB voice transmission has been altered somewhat through various filters in the process of producing the sideband that is not too wide, usually only the most important portions or characteristics of the voice frequencies needed to communicate are allowed through, and this causes the lack of true AM or FM fidelity to the transmission, but the communication, (understandable), portions of the voice characteristics remain, which is all that is needed in the first place. It is a "communications" mode, not wide band HI FI commercial broadcast FM radio, CD quality mode!
The information contained in the average human voice needed to understand the voice is contained within about the first 3000hz of the human hearing range. Frequencies of the human voice beyond this range are not needed for communication purposes and are filtered out in the modulation process. So the average bandwidth of a SSB signal is about 3000hz wide with all of the voice characteristics needed within that range to be understandable.


The Power Ratio factor
Back to AM for a bit. When producing that AM signal we were talking about, the end result is that it was discovered that approximately half of the transmitter power is "wasted" on the carrier and the rest of the power is divided between the two sidebands. As a result, the actual audio output from a 1000 watt AM transmitter (500 watts of carrier + 250 watts on each sideband) would be the same as a 250 watt SSB transmitter in it’s effectiveness.

The Efficiency of SSB Transmitters

In the above, we learned that it would take 1000 watts of AM to be as effective as 250 watts SSB. This is a 4 to 1 ratio. The reason for the efficiency of SSB, is that all of that power that was used to produce both sidebands and the carrier are now used in only one sideband at the transmitter, and when you account for the receiver re-adding only a very, very tiny portion of that power back into the equation, you are increasing the efficiency about 16 times better than the standard AM transmitter! It is one reason why long distances can be covered effectively with SSB using much less power than AM.


SSB surprises for the new user!
When you tune around a ham band where single sideband is used, one thing may startle you compared to listening to AM or FM. Two stations occupying the same frequency can talk at the same time without those terrible squeels and tones caused by two carriers beating together! Since there are no carriers transmitted....no tones. If you are familiar with the terms, "Pileups" or "Double"....you will understand what this means.

So as not to get too technical, those tones are caused by the differences in the two AM station frequencies that fall within the audible range when added or subtracted from each other creating the difference heard as an audio tone.

Here is an example:
Station 1 transmits on 7.200000mhz exactly using AM.
Station 2 transmits on 7.201000mhz exactly using AM
Station 3 is your receiver tuned to 7.200000 exactly on AM.
When you subtract the difference between the two frequencies of station 1 and station 2, you get 1000hz which is an audio tone that you hear from the receiver. If one of the two stations adjusted their frequency by a tiny amount, you would hear the difference change in the frequency of the audio tone.

When you are in either sideband mode and you're just setting there listing to the background noise and all of a sudden you hear a tone in the background, you are hearing the "carrier" that is being re-inserted in your receiver beating against the carrier of the other station and producing the difference frequency if he is slightly off of the frequency you are tuned to. If you tune your receiver on top and exactly on his transmit frequency...the tone will simply vanish because the difference frequency between your receiver and his transmit frequency are so close or exact that you can not hear the low audio frequency. Most ham transceivers do not reproduce audio frequencies below about 100hz or so, so even if your ears could hear that frequency, the radio is simply just not producing it.
One more thing that may surprise you....When you key your mic and are in the SSB mode....look at your watt meter......no output! Remember.....there is no carrier produced in the transmitter when using the sideband mode.....so no carrier will be registered on the meter. If you scratch your finger across the face of the mic or speak into it, you will then see the meter register the "modulation".

The instant you "modulate" the transmitter with your voice, you will see that the meter deflects showing you that now you have output....this is normal so don't worry that your transmitter is not operating....it is...and very effectively!

Now that you have learned more about how SSB works just remember that the SSB mode of transmission is the predominant mode of transmission used by most hams to effectively and efficiently work the world!

Meet you on 10 meters.....28.4mhz......USB! 73! &
May God Bless You and Yours.

 


[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 47, Volume 5, Parts 80 to End]
[Revised as of October 1, 2000]
From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access
[CITE: 47CFR97.305]

[Page 594-595]
 
                       TITLE 47--TELECOMMUNICATION
 
                         COMMISSION (CONTINUED)
 
PART 97--AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE--Table of Contents
 
                     Subpart D--Technical Standards
 
Sec. 97.305  Authorized emission types.

    (a) An amateur station may transmit a CW emission on any frequency
authorized to the control operator.
    (b) A station may transmit a test emission on any frequency
authorized to the control operator for brief periods for experimental
purposes, except that no pulse modulation emission may be transmitted on
any frequency where pulse is not specifically authorized and no SS
modulation emission may be transmitted on any frequency where SS is not
specifically authorized.
    (c) A station may transmit the following emission types on the
frequencies indicated, as authorized to the control operator, subject to
the standards specified in Sec. 97.307(f) of this part.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                Standards see Sec.  97.307(f),
 Wavelength band       Frequencies            Emission types authorized                   paragraph:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
MF:
    160 m         Entire band..........  RTTY, data........................  (3).
    160 m         Entire band..........  Phone, image......................  (1), (2).
HF:
    80 m          Entire band..........  RTTY, data........................  (3), (9).
    75 m          Entire band..........  Phone, image......................  (1), (2).
    40 m          7.000-7.100 MHz......  RTTY, data........................  (3), (9).
    40 m          7.075-7.100 MHz......  Phone, image......................  (1), (2), (9), (11).
    40 m          7.100-7.150 MHz......  RTTY, data........................  (3), (9).
    40 m          7.150-7.300 MHz......  Phone, image......................  (1), (2).
    30 m          Entire band..........  RTTY, data........................  (3).
    20 m          14.00-14.15 MHz......  RTTY, data........................  (3).
    20 m          14.15-14.35 MHz......  Phone, image......................  (1), (2).
    17 m          18.068-18.110 MHz....  RTTY, data........................  (3).
    17 m          18.110-18.168 MHz....  Phone, image......................  (1), (2).
    15 m          21.0-21.2 MHz........  RTTY, data........................  (3), (9).
    15 m          21.20-21.45 MHz......  Phone, image......................  (1), (2).
    12 m          24.89-24.93 MHz......  RTTY, data........................  (3).
    12 m          24.93-24.99 MHz......  Phone, image......................  (1), (2).
    10 m          28.0-28.3 MHz........  RTTY, data........................  (4).
    10 m          28.3-28.5 MHz........  Phone, image......................  (1), (2), (10).
    10 m          28.5-29.0 MHz........  Phone, image......................  (1), (2).
    10 m          29.0-29.7 MHz........  Phone, image......................  (2).

[[Page 595]]


VHF:
    6 m           50.1-51.0 MHz........  MCW, phone, image, RTTY, data.....  (2), (5).
      Do          51.0-54.0 MHz........  MCW, phone, image, RTTY, data,      (2), (5), (8).
                                          test.
    2 m           144.1-148.0 MHz......  MCW, phone, image, RTTY, data,      (2), (5), (8).
                                          test.
    1.25 m        219-220 MHz..........  Data..............................  (13).
      Do          222-225 MHz..........  MCW, phone, image, RTTY, data,      (2), (6), (8).
                                          test.
UHF:
    70 cm         Entire band..........  MCW, phone, image, RTTY, data, SS,  (6), (8).
                                          test.
    33 cm         Entire band..........  MCW, phone, image, RTTY, data, SS,  (7), (8), and (12).
                                          test, pulse.
    23 cm         Entire band..........  MCW, phone, image, RTTY, data, SS,   (7), (8), and (12).
                                          test.
    13 cm         Entire band..........  MCW, phone, image, RTTY, data, SS,  (7), (8), and (12).
                                          test, pulse.
SHF:
    9 cm          Entire band..........  MCW, phone, image, RTTY, data, SS,  (7), (8), and (12).
                                          test, pulse.
    5 cm          Entire band..........  MCW, phone, image, RTTY, data, SS,  (7), (8), and (12).
                                          test, pulse.
    3 cm          Entire band..........  MCW, phone, image, RTTY, data, SS,  (7), (8), and (12).
                                          test.
    1.2 cm        Entire band..........  MCW, phone, image, RTTY, data, SS,  (7), (8), and (12).
                                          test, pulse.
EHF:
    6 mm          Entire band..........  MCW, phone, image, RTTY, data, SS,  (7), (8), and (12).
                                          test, pulse.
    4 mm          Entire band..........  MCW, phone, image, RTTY, data, SS,  (7), (8), and (12).
                                          test, pulse.
    2.5 mm        Entire band..........  MCW, phone, image, RTTY, data, SS,  (7), (8), and (12).
                                          test, pulse.
    2 mm          Entire band..........  MCW, phone, image, RTTY, data, SS,  (7), (8), and (12).
                                          test, pulse.
    1mm           Entire band..........  MCW, phone, image, RTTY, data, SS,  (7), (8), and (12).
                                          test, pulse.
    --            Above 300 GHz........  MCW, phone, image, RTTY, data, SS,  (7), (8), and (12).
                                          test, pulse.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

PART 97--AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE
[54 FR 25857, June 20, 1989; 54 FR 39536, Sept. 27, 1989; 55 FR 22013,
May 30, 1990, as amended at 55 FR 30457, July 26, 1990; 60 FR 15688,
Mar. 27, 1995; 64 FR 51471, Sept. 23, 1999]

[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 47, Volume 5, Parts 80 to End]
[Revised as of October 1, 2000]
From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access
[CITE: 47CFR97.1]

[Page 570]
 
                       TITLE 47--TELECOMMUNICATION
 
                         COMMISSION (CONTINUED)
 
PART 97--AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE--Table of Contents
 
                      Subpart A--General Provisions
 
Sec. 97.1  Basis and purpose.


    The rules and regulations in this part are designed to provide an
amateur radio service having a fundamental purpose as expressed in the
following principles:
    (a) Recognition and enhancement of the value of the amateur service
to the public as a voluntary noncommercial communication service,
particularly with respect to providing emergency communications.
    (b) Continuation and extension of the amateur's proven ability to
contribute to the advancement of the radio art.
    (c) Encouragement and improvement of the amateur service through
rules which provide for advancing skills in both the communication and
technical phases of the art.
    (d) Expansion of the existing reservoir within the amateur radio
service of trained operators, technicians, and electronics experts.
    (e) Continuation and extension of the amateur's unique ability to
enhance international goodwill.

[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 47, Volume 5, Parts 80 to End]
[Revised as of October 1, 2000]
From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access
[CITE: 47CFR97.3]

[Page 570-573]
 
                       TITLE 47--TELECOMMUNICATION
 
                         COMMISSION (CONTINUED)
 
PART 97--AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE--Table of Contents
 
                      Subpart A--General Provisions
 
Sec. 97.3  Definitions.

    (a) The definitions of terms used in part 97 are:
    (1) Amateur operator. A person holding a written authorization to be
the control operator of an amateur station.
    (2) Amateur radio services. The amateur service, the amateur-
satellite service and the radio amateur civil emergency service.
    (3) Amateur-satellite service. A radiocommunication service using
stations on Earth satellites for the same purpose as those of the
amateur service.
    (4) Amateur service. A radiocommunication service for the purpose of
self-training, intercommunication and technical investigations carried
out by amateurs, that is, duly authorized persons interested in radio
technique solely with a personal aim and without pecuniary interest.
    (5) Amateur station. A station in an amateur radio service
consisting of the apparatus necessary for carrying on
radiocommunications.
    (6) Automatic control. The use of devices and procedures for control
of a station when it is transmitting so that compliance with the FCC
Rules is achieved without the control operator being present at a
control point.
    (7) Auxiliary station. An amateur station, other than in a message
forwarding system, that is transmitting communications point-to-point
within a system of cooperating amateur stations.
    (8) Bandwidth. The width of a frequency band outside of which the
mean power of the transmitted signal is attenuated at least 26 dB below
the mean power of the transmitted signal within the band.
    (9) Beacon. An amateur station transmitting communications for the
purposes of observation of propagation and

[[Page 571]]

reception or other related experimental activities.
    (10) Broadcasting. Transmissions intended for reception by the
general public, either direct or relayed.
    (11) Call sign system. The method used to select a call sign for
amateur station over-the-air identification purposes. The call sign
systems are:
    (i) Sequential call sign system. The call sign is selected by the
FCC from an alphabetized list corresponding to the geographic region of
the licensee's mailing address and operator class. The call sign is
shown on the license. The FCC will issue public announcements detailing
the procedures of the sequential call sign system.
    (ii) Vanity call sign system. The call sign is selected by the FCC
from a list of call signs requested by the licensee. The call sign is
shown on the license. The FCC will issue public announcements detailing
the procedures of the vanity call sign system.
    (iii) Special event call sign system. The call sign is selected by
the station licensee from a list of call signs shown on a common data
base coordinated, maintained and disseminated by the amateur station
special event call sign data base coordinators. The call sign must have
the single letter prefix K, N or W, followed by a single numeral 0
through 9, followed by a single letter A through W or Y or Z (for
example K1A). The special event call sign is substituted for the call
sign shown on the station license grant while the station is
transmitting. The FCC will issue public announcements detailing the
procedures of the special event call sign system.
    (12) CEPT radio-amateur license. A license issued by a country
belonging to the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications
Administrations (CEPT) that has adopted Recommendation T/R 61-01 (Nice
1985, revised in Paris 1992 and by correspondence August 1992).
    (13) Control operator. An amateur operator designated by the
licensee of a station to be responsible for the transmissions from that
station to assure compliance with the FCC Rules.
    (14) Control point. The location at which the control operator
function is performed.
    (15) CSCE. Certificate of successful completion of an examination.
    (16) Earth station. An amateur station located on, or within 50 km
of, the Earth's surface intended for communications with space stations
or with other Earth stations by means of one or more other objects in
space.
    (17) EIC. Engineer in Charge of an FCC Field Facility.
    (18) External RF power amplifier. A device capable of increasing
power output when used in conjunction with, but not an integral part of,
a transmitter.
    (19) External RF power amplifier kit. A number of electronic parts,
which, when assembled, is an external RF power amplifier, even if
additional parts are required to complete assembly.
    (20) FAA. Federal Aviation Administration.
    (21) FCC. Federal Communications Commission.
    (22) Frequency coordinator. An entity, recognized in a local or
regional area by amateur operators whose stations are eligible to be
auxiliary or repeater stations, that recommends transmit/receive
channels and associated operating and technical parameters for such
stations in order to avoid or minimize potential interference.
    (23) Harmful interference. Interference which endangers the
functioning of a radionavigation service or of other safety services or
seriously degrades, obstructs or repeatedly interrupts a
radiocommunication service operating in accordance with the Radio
Regulations.
    (24) IARP (International Amateur Radio Permit). A document issued
pursuant to the terms of the Inter-American Convention on an
International Amateur Radio Permit by a country signatory to that
Convention, other than the United States. Montrouis, Haiti. AG/doc.3216/
95.
    (25) Indicator. Words, letters or numerals appended to and separated
from the call sign during the station identification.
    (26) Information bulletin. A message directed only to amateur
operators consisting solely of subject matter of direct interest to the
amateur service.
    (27) International Morse code. A dot-dash code as defined in
International

[[Page 572]]

Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT) Recommendation
F.1 (1984), Division B, I. Morse code.
    (28) ITU. International Telecommunication Union.
    (29) Line A. Begins at Aberdeen, WA, running by great circle arc to
the intersection of 48 deg. N, 120 deg. W, thence along parallel 48 deg.
N, to the intersection of 95 deg. W, thence by great circle arc through
the southernmost point of Duluth, MN, thence by great circle arc to
45 deg. N, 85 deg. W, thence southward along meridian 85 deg. W, to its
intersection with parallel 41 deg. N, thence along parallel 41 deg. N,
to its intersection with meridian 82 deg. W, thence by great circle arc
through the southernmost point of Bangor, ME, thence by great circle arc
through the southernmost point of Searsport, ME, at which point it
terminates.
    (30) Local control. The use of a control operator who directly
manipulates the operating adjustments in the station to achieve
compliance with the FCC Rules.
    (31) Message forwarding system. A group of amateur stations
participating in a voluntary, cooperative, interactive arrangement where
communications are sent from the control operator of an originating
station to the control operator of one or more destination stations by
one or more forwarding stations.
    (32) National Radio Quiet Zone. The area in Maryland, Virginia and
West Virginia Bounded by 39 deg. 15'N on the north, 78 deg. 30'W on the
east, 37 deg. 30' N on the south and 80 deg. 30' W on the west.
    (33) Physician. For the purpose of this part, a person who is
licensed to practice in a place where the amateur service is regulated
by the FCC, as either a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) or a Doctor of
Osteophathy (D.O.)
    (34) Question pool. All current examination questions for a
designated written examination element.
    (35) Question set. A series of examination on a given examination
selected from the question pool.
    (36) Radio Regulations. The latest ITU Radio Regulations to which
the United States is a party.
    (37) RACES (radio amateur civil emergency service). A radio service
using amateur stations for civil defense communications during periods
of local, regional or national civil emergencies.
    (38) Remote control. The use of a control operator who indirectly
manipulates the operating adjustments in the station through a control
link to achieve compliance with the FCC Rules.
    (39) Repeater. An amateur station that simultaneously retransmits
the transmission of another amateur station on a different channel or
channels.
    (40) Space station. An amateur station located more than 50 km above
the Earth's surface.
    (41) Space telemetry. A one-way transmission from a space station of
measurements made from the measuring instruments in a spacecraft,
including those relating to the functioning of the spacecraft.
    (42) Spurious emission. An emission, or frequencies outside the
necessary bandwidth of a transmission, the level of which may be reduced
without affecting the information being transmitted.
    (43) Telecommand. A one-way transmission to initiate, modify, or
terminate functions of a device at a distance.
    (44) Telecommand station. An amateur station that transmits
communications to initiate, modify or terminate functions of a space
station.
    (45) Telemetry. A one-way transmission of measurements at a distance
from the measuring instrument.
    (46) Third party communications. A message from the control operator
(first party) of an amateur station to another amateur station control
operator (second party) on behalf of another person (third party).
    (47) ULS (Universal Licensing System). The consolidated database,
application filing system and processing system for all Wireless
Telecommunications Services.
    (48) VE. Volunteer examiner.
    (49) VEC. Volunteer-examiner coordinator.
    (b) The definitions of technical smybols used in this part are:
    (1) EHF (extremely high frequency). The frequency range 30-300 GHz.
    (2) HF (high frequency). The frequency range 3-30 MHz.
    (3) Hz. Hertz.
    (4) m. Meters.

[[Page 573]]

    (5) MF (medium frequency). The frequency range 300-3000 kHz.
    (6) PEP (peak envelope power). The average power supplied to the
antenna transmission line by a transmitter during one RF cycle at the
crest of the modulation envelope taken under normal operating
conditions.
    (7) RF. Radio frequency.
    (8) SHF (super-high frequency). The frequency range 3-30 GHz.
    (9) UHF (ultra-high frequency). The frequency range 300-3000 MHz.
    (10) VHF (very-high frequency). The frequency range 30-300 MHz.
    (11) W. Watts.
    (c) The following terms are used in this part to indicate emission
types. Refer to Sec. 2.201 of the FCC Rules, Emission, modulation and
transmission characteristics, for information on emission type
designators.
    (1) CW. International Morse code telegraphy emissions having
designators with A, C, H, J or R as the first symbol; 1 as the second
symbol; A or B as the third symbol; and emissions J2A and J2B.
    (2) Data. Telemetry, telecommand and computer communications
emissions having designators with A, C, D, F, G, H, J or R as the first
symbol; 1 as the second symbol; D as the third symbol; and emission J2D.
Only a digital code of a type specifically authorized in this part may
be transmitted.
    (3) Image. Facsimile and television emissions having designators
with A, C, D, F, G, H, J or R as the first symbol; 1, 2 or 3 as the
second symbol; C or F as the third symbol; and emissions having B as the
first symbol; 7, 8 or 9 as the second symbol; W as the third symbol.
    (4) MCW. Tone-modulated international Morse code telegraphy
emissions having designators with A, C, D, F, G, H or R as the first
symbol; 2 as the second symbol; A or B as the third symbol.
    (5) Phone. Speech and other sound emissions having designators with
A, C, D, F, G, H, J or R as the first symbol; 1, 2 or 3 as the second
symbol; E as the third symbol. Also speech emissions having B as the
first symbol; 7, 8 or 9 as the second symbol; E as the third symbol. MCW
for the purpose of performing the station identification procedure, or
for providing telegraphy practice interspersed with speech. Incidental
tones for the purpose of selective calling or alerting or to control the
level of a demodulated signal may also be considered phone.
    (6) Pulse. Emissions having designators with K, L, M, P, Q, V or W
as the first symbol; 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9 or X as the second symbol; A,
B, C, D, E, F, N, W or X as the third symbol.
    (7) RTTY. Narrow-band direct-printing telegraphy emissions having
designators with A, C, D, F, G, H, J or R as the first symbol; 1 as the
second symbol; B as the third symbol; and emission J2B. Only a digital
code of a type specifically authorized in this part may be transmitted.
    (8) SS. Spread spectrum emissions using bandwidth-expansion
modulation emissions having designators with A, C, D, F, G, H, J or R as
the first symbol; X as the second symbol; X as the third symbol.
    (9) Test. Emissions containing no information having the designators
with N as the third symbol. Test does not include pulse emissions with
no information or modulation unless pulse emissions are also authorized
in the frequency band.

[54 FR 25857, June 20, 1989, as amended at 56 FR 29, Jan. 2, 1991; 56 FR
56171, Nov. 1, 1991; 59 FR 18975, Apr. 21, 1994; 60 FR 7460, Feb. 8,
1995; 62 FR 17567, Apr. 10, 1997; 63 FR 68977, Dec. 14, 1998; 64 FR
51471, Sept. 23, 1999]

[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 47, Volume 5, Parts 80 to End]
[Revised as of October 1, 2000]
From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access
[CITE: 47CFR97.5]

[Page 573-574]
 
                       TITLE 47--TELECOMMUNICATION
 
                         COMMISSION (CONTINUED)
 
PART 97--AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE--Table of Contents
 
                      Subpart A--General Provisions
 
Sec. 97.5  Station license required.

    (a) The station apparatus must be under the physical control of a
person named in an amateur station license grant on the ULS consolidated
license database or a person authorized for alien reciprocal operation
by Sec. 97.107 of this part, before the station may transmit on any
amateur service frequency from any place that is:
    (1) Within 50 km of the Earth's surface and at a place where the
amateur service is regulated by the FCC;
    (2) Within 50 km of the Earth's surface and aboard any vessel or
craft that is documented or registered in the United States; or
    (3) More than 50 km above the Earth's surface aboard any craft that
is documented or registered in the United States.

[[Page 574]]

    (b) The types of station license grants are:
    (1) An operator/primary station license grant. One, but only one,
operator/primary station license grant may be held by any one person.
The primary station license is granted together with the amateur
operator license. Except for a representative of a foreign government,
any person who qualifies by examination is eligible to apply for an
operator/primary station license grant.
    (2) A club station license grant. A club station license grant may
be held only by the person who is the license trustee designated by an
officer of the club. The trustee must be a person who holds an Amateur
Extra, Advanced, General, Technician Plus, or Technician operator
license grant. The club must be composed of at least four persons and
must have a name, a document of organization, management, and a primary
purpose devoted to amateur service activities consistent with this part.
    (3) A military recreation station license grant. A military
recreation station license grant may be held only by the person who is
the license custodian designated by the official in charge of the United
States military recreational premises where the station is situated. The
person must not be a representative of a foreign government. The person
need not hold an amateur operator license grant.
    (4) A RACES station license grant. A RACES station license grant may
be held only by the person who is the license custodian designated by
the official responsible for the governmental agency served by that
civil defense organization. The custodian must be the civil defense
official responsible for coordination of all civil defense activities in
the area concerned. The custodian must not be a representative of a
foreign government. The custodian need not hold an amateur operator
license grant.
    (c) The person named in the station license grant or who is
authorized for alien reciprocal operation by Sec. 97.107 of this part
may use, in accordance with the applicable rules of this part, the
transmitting apparatus under the physical control of the person at
places where the amateur service is regulated by the FCC.
    (d) A CEPT radio-amateur license is issued to the person by the
country of which the person is a citizen. The person must not:
    (1) Be a resident alien or citizen of the United States, regardless
of any other citizenship also held;
    (2) Hold an FCC-issued amateur operator license nor reciprocal
permit for alien amateur licensee;
    (3) Be a prior amateur service licensee whose FCC-issued license was
revoked, suspended for less than the balance of the license term and the
suspension is still in effect, suspended for the balance of the license
term and relicensing has not taken place, or surrendered for
cancellation following notice of revocation, suspension or monetary
forfeiture proceedings; or
    (4) Be the subject of a cease and desist order that relates to
amateur service operation and which is still in effect.
    (e) An IARP is issued to the person by the country of which the
person is a citizen. The person must not:
    (1) Be a resident alien or citizen of the United States, regardless
of any other citizenship also held;
    (2) Hold an FCC-issued amateur operator license nor reciprocal
permit for alien amateur licensee;
    (3) Be a prior amateur service licensee whose FCC-issued license was
revoked, suspended for less than the balance of the license term and the
suspension is still in effect, suspended for the balance of the license
term and relicensing has not taken place, or surrendered for
cancellation following notice of revocation, suspension or monetary
forfeiture proceedings; or
    (4) Be the subject of a cease and desist order that relates to
amateur service operation and which is still in effect.

[59 FR 54831, Nov. 2, 1994, as amended at 62 FR 17567, Apr. 10, 1997; 63
FR 68977, Dec. 14, 1998]

Get a copy of the Title 47--Telecommunication
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CHAPTER I--FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION

PART 97--AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE
and keep that copy at or near your station & Know them. This is required by all hams in the U.S.

 

 


 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 


 

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